The intent to kill necessary for
conviction may be evidenced by, for example:
calculated planning; selection and use of a deadly weapon; threats to
kill; severity or duration of attack; or relevant admissions in interview.
Violence under the Public Order Act 1986
Although it is called the
Public Order Act, this statute contains offences committed in private as
well as in public places.
requires unlawful violence by a group of at least 12 persons who are
using or threatening violence.
Violent disorder (s2)
consists of the use or threat of violence by 3 or more individuals who
are using or threatening violence.
needs only 1 person using or threatening violence.
In riot and violent disorder, only 1 person need actually use violence;
the rest need only threaten it.
And three lesser, summary crimes:
causing fear or provocation of violence
intentionally causing harassment, alarm or
causing harassment, alarm or distress
The mental element for crimes in sections 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 is set out in
"Violence" (s8) means violence towards a person or persons and, for riot
and violent disorder, it also includes violence to property.
Assaults on the police
Section 89 The Police Act 1996
"(1) Any person who assaults a
constable in the execution of his duty, or a person assisting a constable
in the execution of his duty, shall be guilty of an offence and liable on
summary conviction to imprisonment for a term not exceeding six months or
to a fine not exceeding level 5 on the standard scale, or to both.
(2) Any person who resists or wilfully obstructs a constable in the
execution of his duty, or a person assisting a constable in the execution
of his duty, shall be guilty of an offence and liable on summary
conviction to imprisonment for a term not exceeding one month imprisonment
or to a fine not exceeding level 3 on the standard scale, or to both."
RACIALLY AGGRAVATED ASSAULTS
A person is
guilty of an offence under Section 29 of the Crime and Disorder Act
1998 of racially aggravated assault this section if he commits an
offence under s.20 (wounding or grievous bodily harm) or s.47 (actual
bodily harm) of the 1861 Act, or common assault, which is racially
Punishment = seven years'
imprisonment for causing bodily harm, and two years' for common assault.