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Sources - Sovereignty, EU supremacy enforced by provisions of direct applicability

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The supremacy of EU obligations is enforced in national law by the doctrines of direct applicability, direct effect and indirect effect.

Treaty of Rome (EC Treaty)

The Ďconstitutioní of the EC

Article 2 sets out the objectives of the EC

Article 3 sets out basic principles

Aim is to produce a common market and "to lay the foundations of an ever closer union among the peoples of Europe."


The Single European Act 1986

Set 31/12/92 deadline for completing Single European Market and increased areas of competence.


Treaty on European Union 1992 (Maastricht Treaty)


Came into effect on 1/11/93 to further European integration by creating European Union with 3-pillar structure:


The EC


& Security


operation on
Justice &
Home Affairs

In force on 1/5/99

4 main objectives:

  1. to place employment and citizenís rights at the heart of the Union;

  2. to sweep away the last remaining obstacles to freedom of movement and to strengthen security;

  3. to give a stronger voice to Europe in world affairs

  4. to make the Unionís institutional structure more efficient with a view to enlarging the Union.

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